Speculative Loading

Beskrivning

Detta tillägg lägger till stöd för Speculation Rules API, som gör det möjligt att definiera regler genom vilka vissa webbadresser dynamiskt förhandsladdas eller förhandsrenderas baserat på användarinteraktion.

See the Speculation Rules WICG specification draft.

Som standard är tillägget konfigurerat för att förhandsrendera WordPress front-end-URL:er när användaren för muspekaren över en relevant länk. Detta kan anpassas via sektionen ”Spekulativ laddning” under Inställningar > Läsa.

A filter can be used to exclude certain URL paths from being eligible for prefetching and prerendering (see FAQ section). Alternatively, you can add the ’no-prerender’ CSS class to any link (<a> tag) that should not be prerendered. See FAQ for more information.

Stöd för webbläsare

The Speculation Rules API is a new web API, and the functionality used by the plugin is supported in Chromium-based browsers such as Chrome, Edge, or Opera using version 121 or above. Other browsers such as Safari and Firefox will ignore the functionality with no ill effects but will not benefit from the speculative loading. Note that extensions may disable preloading by default (for example, uBlock Origin does this).

Andra webbläsare kommer inte att se några negativa effekter, men funktionen kommer inte att fungera för dessa klienter.

Detta tillägg hette tidigare Speculation Rules.

Installation

Installation inifrån WordPress

  1. Besök Tillägg > Lägg till nytt.
  2. Sök efter Speculative Loading.
  3. Installera och aktivera tillägget Speculative Loading.

Manuell installation

  1. Ladda upp hela mappen speculation-rules till katalogen /wp-content/plugins/.
  2. Besök Tillägg.
  3. Aktivera tillägget Speculation Loading.

Vanliga frågor

Hur kan jag förhindra att vissa URL:er förhandsladdas och förhandsrenderas?

Not every URL can be reasonably prerendered. Prerendering static content is typically reliable, however prerendering interactive content, such as a logout URL, can lead to issues. For this reason, certain WordPress core URLs such as /wp-login.php and /wp-admin/* are excluded from prefetching and prerendering. Additionally, any URL generated with wp_nonce_url() (or which contain the _wpnonce query var) is also ignored. You can exclude additional URL patterns by using the plsr_speculation_rules_href_exclude_paths filter.

Detta exempel skulle säkerställa att URL:er som https://example.com/cart/ eller https://example.com/cart/foo utesluts från förhandsladdning och förhandsrendering.

<?php

add_filter(
    'plsr_speculation_rules_href_exclude_paths',
    function ( array $exclude_paths ): array {
        $exclude_paths[] = '/cart/*';
        return $exclude_paths;
    }
);

Keep in mind that sometimes it may be useful to exclude a URL from prerendering while still allowing it to be prefetched. For example, a page with client-side JavaScript to update user state should probably not be prerendered, but it would be reasonable to prefetch.

For this purpose, the plsr_speculation_rules_href_exclude_paths filter receives the current mode (either ”prefetch” or ”prerender”) to provide conditional exclusions.

The following example would ensure that URLs like https://example.com/products/... cannot be prerendered, while still allowing them to be prefetched.

<?php

add_filter(
    'plsr_speculation_rules_href_exclude_paths',
    function ( array $exclude_paths, string $mode ): array {
        if ( 'prerender' === $mode ) {
            $exclude_paths[] = '/products/*';
        }
        return $exclude_paths;
    },
    10,
    2
);

As mentioned above, adding the no-prerender CSS class to a link will prevent it from being prerendered (but not prefetched). Additionally, links with rel=nofollow will neither be prefetched nor prerendered because some plugins add this to non-idempotent links (e.g. add to cart); such links ideally should rather be buttons which trigger a POST request or at least they should use wp_nonce_url().

How will this impact analytics and personalization?

Prerendering can affect analytics and personalization.

For client-side JavaScript, is recommended to delay these until the page clicks and some solutions (like Google Analytics) already do this automatically for prerender. See Impact on Analytics. Additionally, cross-origin iframes are not loaded until activation which can further avoid issues here.

Speculating on hover (moderate) increases the chance the page will be loaded, over preloading without this signal, and thus reduces the risk here. Alternatively, the plugin offers to only speculate on mouse/pointer down (conservative) which further reduces the risk here and is an option for sites which are concerned about this, at the cost of having less of a lead time and so less of a performance gain.

A prerendered page is linked to the page that prerenders it, so personalisation may already be known by this point and changes (e.g. browsing other products, or logging in/out) may require a new page load, and hence a new prerender anyway, which will take these into account. But it definitely is something to be aware of and test!

Var kan jag skicka in min återkoppling om tillägget?

Återkoppling uppmuntras och uppskattas mycket, särskilt eftersom detta tillägg kan innehålla framtida funktioner för WordPress-kärnan. Om du har förslag eller önskemål om nya funktioner kan du skicka in dem som ett ärenden i GitHub-filförvaret för WordPress Performance Team. Om du behöver hjälp med felsökning eller har en fråga om tillägget, skapa ett nytt ämne på vårt supportforum.

Var kan jag rapportera säkerhetsproblem?

Performance-teamet och WordPress-communityn tar säkerhetsfel på allvar. Vi uppskattar dina ansträngningar att ansvarsfullt rapportera dina upptäckter och kommer att göra allt vi kan för att erkänna dina bidrag.

För att rapportera ett säkerhetsproblem, besök WordPress HackerOne-programmet.

Hur kan jag bidra till tillägget?

Bidrag är alltid välkomna! Läs mer om hur du kan engagera dig i Handboken för Core Performance-team.

Recensioner

8 maj 2024 1 svar
I’ve currently activated this plugin on five sites, some on one server, and then others on another. The plugin has yet to present any plugin conflicts or other issues. The time to load pages is drastically improved based on user intent, and based on this alone, I cannot recommend this plugin enough. I haven’t tested the sites with Lighthouse, but honestly, I don’t feel the need to do that, because it’s about the user experience first, and that is such an improvement with this plugin. Thank you!
17 april 2024
I tested this out on three websites. It works great. I’m going to load it to another 50 or so as I get to each one. Good job!
16 april 2024
I’ve enabled the plugin on my testing site. It’s usually quite slow with poor caching, but it seems to make a big difference in loading time. Almost instant, in some cases. I need to test more, but at fisrt glance, it seems like quite an encouraging step forward.
Läs alla 12 betyg

Bidragsgivare och utvecklare

”Speculative Loading” är programvara med öppen källkod. Följande personer har bidragit till detta tillägg.

Bidragande personer

”Speculative Loading” har översatts till 6 språk. Tack till översättarna för deras bidrag.

Översätt ”Speculative Loading” till ditt språk.

Intresserad av programutveckling?

Läs programkoden, kika på SVN-filförvaret eller prenumerera på utvecklarloggen via RSS.

Ändringslogg

1.3.0

Enhancements

  • Prevent speculatively loading links to the uploads, content, plugins, template, or stylesheet directories. (1167)
  • Facilitate embedding Speculative Loading in other plugins/themes. (1159)
  • Improve overall code quality with stricter static analysis checks. (775)
  • Bump minimum PHP requirement to 7.2. (1130)

1.2.2

Bug Fixes

  • Fix composition of href exclude paths to account for JSON encoding and differing site/home URLs. (1164)

Documentation

  • Update readme with browser support and FAQ section about analytics and personalization. (1155)

1.2.1

Enhancements

  • Add settings link to Speculative Loading plugin action links. (1145)
  • Bump minimum PHP version to 7.2. (1130)

Bug Fixes

  • Exclude _wpnonce URLs in speculation rules. (1143)
  • Exclude rel=nofollow links from prefetch/prerender. (1142)

1.2.0

  • Add missing uninstall.php to remove plugin’s database option. (1128)

1.1.0

  • Allow excluding URL patterns from prerendering or prefetching specifically. (1025)
  • Rename plugin to ”Speculative Loading”. (1101)
  • Add Speculative Loading generator tag. (1102)
  • Bump minimum required WP version to 6.4. (1062)
  • Update tested WordPress version to 6.5. (1027)

1.0.1

  • Escape path prefix and restrict it to be a pathname in Speculation Rules. (951)
  • Force HTML5 script theme support when printing JSON script. (952)
  • Add icon and banner assets for plugin directory. (987)

1.0.0

  • Första utgåvan av tillägget ”Speculative Loading” som ett fristående tillägg. (733)